R01 AI135128-01 – Multiscale modeling of the battle over iron in invasive lung infection

1 R01 AI135128-01 Title: Multiscale modeling of the battle over iron in invasive lung infection

Project Summary

Invasive aspergillosis is among the most common fungal infection in immunocompromised hosts and carries a poor outcome. The spores of the causative organism, Aspergillus fumigatus, are ubiquitously distributed in the environment. Healthy hosts clear the inhaled spores without developing disease, but individuals with impaired immunity are susceptible to a life-threatening respiratory infection that can then disseminate to other organs. The increasing use of immunosuppressive therapies in transplantation and cancer has dramatically increased suffering and death from this infection, and this trend is expected to continue. Current therapeutic approaches have been focused primarily on the pathogen, but a better understanding of the components of host defense in this infection may lead to the development of new treatments against this infection, possibly in combination with antifungal drugs. Iron is essential to all living organisms, and restricting iron availability is a critical mechanism of
antimicrobial host defense against many microorganisms; conversely, successful pathogens have evolved potent mechanisms for scavenging iron from the host. These mechanisms have the potential to be harnessed therapeutically, for example with drugs that enhance the host’s iron sequestration mechanisms. The overarching goal of this project is to develop a multi-scale mathematical model that can serve as a simulation tool of the role of iron in invasive aspergillosis. The model will integrate mechanisms at the molecular scale with tissue-level events and a whole-body scale capturing the role of the liver. The project brings an innovative approach to the study of this infection, and introduces innovative features to multiscale modeling through a novel modular software design that improves flexibility, reproducibility, and model sharing.

Relevance Statement

Invasive aspergillosis represents a major and growing health problem in the U.S. and around the world. The growing population of immunocompromised patients, combined with increased resistance to recently introduced antifungal drugs makes it urgent to develop new therapeutics, in particular those targeting the host immune response. The proposed project will develop and use advanced mathematical and computational tools, calibrated to extensive experimental data, in order to explore new potential therapeutic targets to treat this disease.

Selected Publications

L. Sordo Vieira, R. Laubenbacher, and D. Murrugarra, Control of Intracellular Molecular Networks Using Algebraic Methods, Bull. Math. Biol., 82(2), 2019.

Aguilar, Boris, Pan Fang, Reinhard Laubenbacher, and David Murrugarra. 2020. “A Near-Optimal Control Method for Stochastic Boolean Networks”. Letters in Biomathematics 7 (1), 67–80.

E. Paul, G. Pogudin, W. Qin and R. Laubenbacher, The dynamics of canalizing Boolean networks, Complexity, https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/3687961, 2020.

Cagnina RE, Michels KR, Bettina AM, Burdick MD, Zhang Z, Braciale TJ, Mehrad B. Neutrophil-derived TNF drives fungal acute lung injury in chronic granulomatous disease. Submitted to PLoS Pathogens (revising manuscript to resubmit).

Michels KR, Solomon AL, Scindia Y, Vaulont S, Burdick MD, Laubenbacher R, Mehrad B. Aspergillus utilizes heme as an iron source during invasive pneumonia. Submitted to mBio (revising manuscript to resubmit).

Solomon A, Michels K, Laubenbacher R, Scindia Y, Mehrad B. The role of heme uptake and hemopexin in invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. American Thoracic Society Virtual Conference, 2020.

Qu G, Solomon A, Yang N, Lin C, Scindia Y, Mehrad B. Alveolar macrophages protect against acute lung injury. American Thoracic Society Virtual Conference, 2020.